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As of January 2015 Russia maintained an arsenal of approximately 4380 nuclear warheads assigned to operational forces. About 2430 of these are strategic warheads, including 1780 that are deployed on ballistic missiles and at bomber bases, and nearly 700 bomber and submarine warheads that are kept in storage. Russia also possessed nearly 2000 non-strategic (tactical) nuclear warheads. A further 3120 warheads were retired or awaiting dismantlement, for a total inventory of roughly 7500 warheads.

Russia met the ceiling of 1550 deployed warheads mandated by the 2010 Russian-US Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (New START) in 2012, six years earlier than required by the treaty, but temporarily moved back above the ceiling in September 2014.

As of 1 September 2014, Russia had 1643 deployed warheads attributed to 528 treaty-accountable strategic launchers, including intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and heavy bombers. This represented an increase of 131 deployed warheads and 23 accountable launchers since 1 September 2013. These changes do not reflect a build-up of the Russian nuclear arsenal but rather are the results of the deployment of new missiles and fluctuations caused by existing launchers moving in and out of overhaul.