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The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy

Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-929084-9
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A special feature of Europe's Nordic region is that only one of its states has joined both the European Union and NATO. Nordic countries also share a certain distrust of approaches to security that rely too much on force or that may disrupt the logic and liberties of civil society. Impacting on this environment, the EU's decision in 1999 to develop its own military capacities for crisis management—taken together with other ongoing shifts in Western security agendas and in USA-Europe relations—has created complex challenges for Nordic policy establishments.

This multi-author book combines the techniques of reporting and analysis, debate and prediction, to illuminate the consequences of these challenges for the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The views expressed in it by Nordic and non-Nordic, younger and more established, analysts reflect the political and intellectual ferment triggered in the Nordic region by these developments—in the process shedding light on defence and security challenges that matter deeply for Europe as a whole.

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Introduction. The European defence challenge for the Nordic region

Alyson J. K. Bailes

Part I. Institutional and national politics

Editor's remarks

Gunilla Herolf

1. Denmark and the European Security and Defence Policy

Klaus Carsten Pedersen

2. The Nordic countries and the EU-NATO relationship

Teija Tiilikainen

3. The Nordic countries and the EU-NATO relationship: further comments

Gunilla Herolf

4. Domestic influences on Nordic security and defence policy: from the perspective of fusion

Lee Miles

5. The domestic background: public opinion and party attitudes towards integration in the Nordic countries

Cynthia Kite

Part II. National defence and European cooperation

Editor's remarks

Bengt Sundelius

6. The impact of EU capability targets and operational demands on defence concepts and planning

Gerrard Quille

7. The impact of EU capability targets and operational demands on defence concepts and planning: the case of Sweden

Lars Wedin

8. 'Not only, but also Nordic': the European Security and Defence Policy and its implications for alternative frameworks of Nordic cooperation

Jesper L. Christensen

9. Hardware politics, 'hard politics' or 'where, politics?': Nordic defence equipment cooperation in the EU context

Björn Hagelin

10. The Nordic attitude to and role in EU-linked defence industrial collaboration

Michael Brzoska

Part III. Nordic handling of the broader dimensions of security in an EU setting

Editor's remarks

Alyson J. K. Bailes

11. Starting to 'think big': the Nordic countries and EU peace-building

Maria Strömvik

12. 'The higher cause of peace': what could and should the Nordic countries contribute to the development of conflict mediation in the EU context?

Tarja Väyrynen

13. The Nordic countries and conventional arms control: the case of small arms and light weapons

Nicholas Marsh

14. Nordic nuclear non-proliferation policies: different traditions and common objectives

Lars van Dassen and Anna Wetter

15. The interface of external and internal security in the EU and in Nordic policies

Magnus Ekengren

16. Muddling through: how the EU is countering new threats to the homeland

Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

Part IV. The Nordic countries, their region and Europe: additional perspectives

Editor's remarks

Alyson J. K. Bailes

17. The Nordic countries and EU security policy: convergent or divergent agendas?

Pernille Rieker

18. The will to defend: a Nordic divide over security and defence policy

Tarja Cronberg

19. The Norwegian predicament in European defence: participation without direction

Nils Morten Udgaard

20. Iceland and the European Security and Defence Policy

Alyson J. K. Bailes and Baldur Thorhallsson

21. Åland in European security policy

Teija Tiilikainen

22. The Baltic states and northern security

Karlis Neretnieks

23. Baltic perspectives on the European Security and Defence Policy

Elzbieta Tromer

Appendix. Extracts from the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe

About the authors


About the editors

Alyson J. K. Bailes (United Kingdom) is the Director of SIPRI. She has served in the British Diplomatic Service, most recently as British Ambassador to Finland. She spent several periods on detachment outside the service, including two academic sabbaticals, a two-year period with the British Ministry of Defence, and assignments to the European Union and the Western European Union. She has published extensively in international journals on politico-military affairs, European integration and Central European affairs as well as on Chinese foreign policy. Her most recent SIPRI publication is The European Security Strategy: An Evolutionary History, SIPRI Policy Paper no. 10 (2005).

Gunilla Herolf (Sweden) is a senior research fellow at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs (SIIA). Her research interests are in security and defence cooperation in Western Europe, including the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in particular France, Germany and the United Kingdom, but also including the Nordic countries. Her recent publications include France, Germany and the United Kingdom: Cooperation in Times of Turbulence (SIIA, 2004).

Bengt Sundelius (Sweden) is the Chief Scientist of the Swedish Emergency Management Agency and a professor of government at Uppsala University. He is the founding Director of the National Centre for Crisis Management Research and Training (CRISMART) of the Swedish National Defence College. He has been Director of the International Graduate School of Stockholm University, Head of the Security and Foreign Policy Research Programme of the Swedish Institute of International Affairs and Director of Research at the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment. He has published numerous scholarly articles and books on European security and foreign policy issues, most recently The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure (Cambridge University Press, 2005, with Arjen Boin, Paul 't Hart and Eric Stern) and Protecting the Homeland: European Approaches to Societal Security and their Implications for the United States (Johns Hopkins University, Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2006, edited with Daniel Hamilton and Jesper Grönvall).

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