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Strengthening EU Civilian Crisis Management: The Civilian CSDP Compact and Beyond

Publisher: SIPRI
SIPRI, Stockholm:
November, 2021

The Civilian Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) Compact has been the most serious attempt to date to strengthen civilian CSDP. However, progress on the commitments to increase secondments to missions and to promote a better representation of women in them has been mixed at best.

Secondments have increased in absolute terms, enabled by the expansion of several missions, but the share of seconded personnel has fallen to 62 per cent overall and even lower in some missions. Women’s representation has not increased overall, although it has improved in some missions and among heads of mission. Personnel contributions by European Union member states have not increased enough to prevent a steady rise in contracted personnel in missions, including in operational positions.

It is therefore increasingly unlikely that the aim to raise the share of seconded personnel to 70 per cent can be achieved by mid 2023, when the compact ends. This SIPRI Insights paper analyses these trends and recommends, among other things, alternative indicators for demonstrating progress towards the more effective staffing of civilian CSDP missions.


I.    Introduction

II.    Raising secondments to civilian CSDP missions

III.    Promoting women’s representation in civilian CSDP

IV.    Comparing national contributions to civilian CSDP

V.    Policy recommendations


Timo Smit is a Senior Researcher in the SIPRI Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme.