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SIPRI Policy Briefs

European Non-proliferation Diplomacy in the Shadow of Secondary Sanctions

This SIPRI Policy Brief describes European responses to secondary sanctions that the United States imposed on Iran after withdrawing from the 2015 nuclear agreement, or the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). In particular, it looks at the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX), which was established by France, Germany and the United Kingdom in 2019 to facilitate European–Iranian trade, initially focusing on the humanitarian sector.

Security and Justice in CAR and the DRC: International Aims, Local Expectations

This research explores the underlying assumptions of interventions by international non-governmental organizations and United Nations peace operations in the provision of security and justice, and compared them with the perceptions and experiences of local population in the Central African Republic and in South Kivu province, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Towards a More Gender-balanced European Union CSDP

When European Union (EU) member states established the Civilian Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) Com­pact, in November 2018, they committed to actively promoting a better representation of women at all levels in the missions. Although women’s representation has improved in the past decade, women remain under­-represented in all missions. One year into the implementation phase of the compact, the number and the share of women in missions have yet to increase.