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Appendix 2A. Patterns of major armed conflicts, 1999–2008



In 2008, 16 major armed conflicts were active in 15 locations around the world, 2 more than in 2007.

  Conflict location
Africa Burundi‡
Americas Colombia↓
Asia Afghanistan*↓
  India (Kashmir)↓
  Myanmar (Karen State)↓
  Philippines (Mindanao)↑
  Sri Lanka (‘Tamil Eelam’)↑
Middle East   Iraq↓
  Israel (Palestinian territories)↑
  Turkey (Kurdistan)*↑

Where a conflict is over territory, the disputed
territory appears in parentheses after the country
name. All other conflicts are over government.

* Fighting in these conflicts also took place in other
↑ Increase in battle-related deaths from 2007.

↓ Decrease in battle-related deaths from 2007.

‡ Conflict inactive or not defined as ‘major’ in 2007.

All of these conflicts are intrastate: for
the fifth year running, no major
interstate conflict was active in 2008.
However, troops from another state
aided one of the parties in four conflicts:
USA, Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia.
Over the past decade, the total number
of conflicts has declined overall from 21 in 1999. However, the decline has been
uneven, with increases in 2005 and 2008.


  Major armed conflicts, 1999–2008

Chapter 2, appendix 2A, figure 1

Lotta Harbom (Sweden) is a Research Assistant with the Uppsala Conflict Data Program at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.

Prof. Peter Wallensteen (Sweden) is Dag Hammarskjöld Chair in Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University, where he directs the Uppsala Conflict Data Program, and Richard G. Starmann Sr Research Professor of Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame.