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10. Nuclear arms control




In 1997 there were a number of positive developments
in strategic nuclear arms control. The US and Russian presidents
agreed on a set of measures to boost the prospects for START
II Treaty ratification by the Russian Parliament; they also agreed
on the outline of a follow-on treaty that would further reduce
nuclear arsenals and help to make those cuts irreversible. The
USA and Russia also reached an agreement in their stalemated
negotiations to clarify the application of the Anti-Ballistic
Missile (ABM) Treaty to theatre missile defence systems. The
implementation of the START I Treaty continued to proceed ahead
of schedule. Despite these accomplishments, key items on the
nuclear arms control and disarmament agenda remained unresolved.
START II continued to face an uncertain fate in the Russian Parliament.

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
had yet to enter into force and at the Conference on Disarmament
no progress was made towards negotiating a global convention
banning the production of fissile material for military purposes.


Appendix 10A. Tables of nuclear forces



Appendix 10B. The nuclear weapon-free zones in South-East Asia and Africa



The Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone
Treaty (Treaty of Bangkok) entered into force in 1997. Since
no South-East Asian countries currently possess nuclear weapons,
the main purpose of the treaty is to regulate the policies of
the nuclear weapon states. As of 1 January 1998, owing to disagreement
over certain provisions and language, none of the nuclear weapon
states had signed the protocol to the treaty, which prohibits
these states from using or threatening to use nuclear arms not
only against the parties to the treaty but also anywhere within
the zone. During 1997 progress was made towards securing the
entry into force of the African Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
(Treaty of Pelindaba). It was signed by 47 and ratified by 2
African states as of 1 January 1998, and another 4 states had
ratified it by April 1998. The treaty represents an important
achievement for the continent in regional security cooperation
and is the only accord of this kind that establishes a zone that
includes a former nuclear weapon state—South Africa.