- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
In 1994 there were both positive and negative developments in enhancement of the conventional arms control regime in Europe. In spite of political arguments over the shape of a security regime for Europe, the implementation of existing disarmament and arms control agreements proceeded without major delays, and members of the CSCE continued to abide by their provisions.
The second phase of reducing CFE Treaty-limited equipment in the Atlantic-to-the-Urals zone and the massive Russian troop pull-out from the CEE and Baltic states were successfully completed in 1994. Reductions of military personnel under the CFE-1A Agreement were under way.
Alongside these positive developments, however, adverse tendencies and issues became more apparent. Disquieting signals are emerging of growing Russian political and military assertiveness in the former Soviet republics and even beyond. Developments such as the conflicts in Chechnya and the Transcaucasus, accompanied by increasing demands by Russia regarding various aspects of its European and global status, have made a dent in the European partnership relations. Russia's arms control decision making, hitherto a political process, is increasingly being influenced if not taken over by the military. The armed conflict in Chechnya not only contravenes the spirit of the code of conduct agreed at the CSCE Budapest Summit Meeting but also infringes the Vienna Document CSBM provisions and threatens to undermine the CFE Treaty regime. There is concern about the motives behind Russia's mounting military projection to the south. Russia's world outlook and political approach to domestic and external problems are undergoing an accelerating transformation.
The Budapest CSCE Summit Meeting took important decisions with respect to security cooperation, but failure to agree on key issues illustrated the complexity of the problems addressed by the Forum on Security Co-operation and the helplessness of the international community in the face of local crises and conflicts. While the cooperative security regime is not yet seriously endangered, the need to complete a comprehensive agenda for arms control and security cooperation was clearly signalled.
Appendix 20A. The Vienna confidence- and security-building measures
Appendix 20B. The Vienna Document 1994
Appendix 20C. he treaty on Open Skies