- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
THOMAS STOCK AND ANNA DE GEER
In 1994 attention in the chemical and biological warfare field focused
primarily on the ratification of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
Reports of proliferation of biological weapons (BW) or chemical weapons (CW)
continued, and the number of countries accused of involvement in proliferation
activities was of the same magnitude as in past years. There were fewer
allegations of CW possession and use in 1994.
Implementation of the Destruction Agreement between Russia and the USA
progressed, but the agreement is not yet fully implemented. The second phase of
the 1989 Wyoming Memorandum of Understanding was completed in mid-December
There was concern about the slow pace and increasing cost of CW destruction in
the primary possessor states, Russia and the USA. In the USA construction of CW
destruction facilities is delayed. The overall cost of the US destruction
programme is growing. In the final evaluation of alternative destruction
technologies submitted by the US Army it was noted that there is no alternative
to the currently used baseline incineration technique. However, additional
funding has been provided for research on alternative technologies. Russia has
not yet approved a final CW destruction programme, and estimates of its total
cost approach those of the US programme. No destruction facility is functional,
and debate about the accuracy of the declared total amount of the Russian CW
stockpile continues. International support for Russia's CW destruction is
essential, and the contribution that will be needed continues to grow.
The issue of CW dumped at sea in the past and the possible consequences of this
for humans and the environment continued to be the subject of much debate and
are of particular concern to the countries around the Baltic Sea.
The origin of the so-called Gulf War Syndrome remains unknown, and new theories
about its origin were advanced. The US Senate has indirectly acknowledged that
the syndrome exists by approving a bill to compensate veterans suffering from
illnesses acquired during the Persian Gulf War.