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SIPRI Background Papers

Implementation of the Russian Federal Budget during January–July 2022 and Spending on the Military

The Russian government has provided little information on military expenditure during the war with Ukraine that started in late February 2022. The Ministry of Finance stopped publishing detailed data on the implementation of the budget in April. However, for a brief period in August and September, the Federal Treasury did issue its usual reports on budget spending during the first half of the year and then to 1 August.

The European Union Training Mission in Mali: An Assessment

This SIPRI Background Paper provides an overview of the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali) and assesses its impact on Mali’s conflict dynamics since it was established in 2013. The third of three country-specific papers, it is part of a larger SIPRI project analysing the effectiveness of the EU’s training missions in Somalia, the Central African Republic and Mali. All three papers will feed into a synthesis paper that will offer a comparative analysis of the missions and recommendations for the way forward.

Peace Operations and the Challenges of Environmental Degradation and Resource Scarcity

The third phase of the New Geopolitics of Peace Operations (NGP) initiative seeks to enhance understanding of how peace operations interact with non-traditional security challenges such as terrorism and violent extremism, irregular migration, piracy, organized crime and environmental degradation and resource scarcity. It aims to identify the various perceptions, positions and interests of the relevant stakeholders.

Post-shipment Control Measures: European Approaches to On-site Inspections of Exported Military Materiel

Post-shipment on-site inspections of exported military materiel enable an exporting country to verify that the materiel is still present in the country of destination and in the possession of the authorized end user. An increasing number of European countries are conducting on-site inspections, or are considering or planning to adopt such measures. A wide range of multilateral organizations already include the implementation of on-site inspections as part of their guidance documents.

Understanding Egyptian Military Expenditure

Egypt has one of the largest military forces and inventories of major weapons in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, based on the official figures provided by the govern­ment, Egypt’s military expenditure averaged a comparatively moderate, by regional stand­ards, US$3.8 billion annually over the past decade. Egypt thus appears to have one of the lowest levels of military spend­ing in MENA.

Policy Responses to Climate-related Security Risks: The African Union

Africa is responsible for a mere 4 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions. Yet, 57 per cent of the countries facing the highest double burden of climate exposure and political fragility risks are located in sub-Saharan Africa. As the risks are most pronounced in fragile countries and transcend boundaries, responses from intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the African Union (AU) are crucial in developing the relevant solutions.

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