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SIPRI Background Papers

Post-shipment Control Measures: European Approaches to On-site Inspections of Exported Military Materiel

Post-shipment on-site inspections of exported military materiel enable an exporting country to verify that the materiel is still present in the country of destination and in the possession of the authorized end user. An increasing number of European countries are conducting on-site inspections, or are considering or planning to adopt such measures. A wide range of multilateral organizations already include the implementation of on-site inspections as part of their guidance documents.

Understanding Egyptian Military Expenditure

Egypt has one of the largest military forces and inventories of major weapons in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, based on the official figures provided by the govern­ment, Egypt’s military expenditure averaged a comparatively moderate, by regional stand­ards, US$3.8 billion annually over the past decade. Egypt thus appears to have one of the lowest levels of military spend­ing in MENA.

Policy Responses to Climate-related Security Risks: The African Union

Africa is responsible for a mere 4 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions. Yet, 57 per cent of the countries facing the highest double burden of climate exposure and political fragility risks are located in sub-Saharan Africa. As the risks are most pronounced in fragile countries and transcend boundaries, responses from intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the African Union (AU) are crucial in developing the relevant solutions.

The Geopolitics of a Changing Arctic

The Arctic region is going through unprecedented changes in its physical, social, geo-economic and geopolitical realities. These rapid changes are having a considerable impact on Arctic security. The various security challenges in the Arctic are often examined in silos, assessing one problem at a time, but the complexity of the risks can best be understood when these challenges are looked at in connection with each other.

Emerging Actors in the Women, Peace and Security Agenda: South Korea and Japan

Since the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on 31 October 2000, global efforts to promote and develop the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda have been ongoing. Thus far, however, the perspective of traditional Western donors in the global North has been at the centre of the discussion. By contrast, and despite their growing importance as donors, South Korea and Japan are often absent from the policy discussions.

Measuring Illicit Arms and Financial Flows: Improving the Assessment of Sustainable Development Goal 16

Target 16.4 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Develop­ment Goals aims to, among other things, ‘significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows’ by 2030. Indicators have been agreed for measuring the achievement of this target. Data­-collection efforts have been launched for arms flows while work continues on finding an agreed definition and measure of illicit financial flows.