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SIPRI Policy Papers

Post-shipment On-site Inspections: Multilateral Steps for Debating and Enabling Their Adoption and Use

Among the key tools that states that export arms and military equipment can adopt to help to prevent and mitigate the diversion of military materiel are post-shipment on-site inspections. These inspections involve the exporting state requiring and conducting physical checks on previously authorized and transferred military materiel on the territory of the importing state. In the past decade a growing number of states have adopted and implemented this policy tool.

Reform within the System: Governance in Iraq and Lebanon

The 2019 protests in Iraq and Lebanon revealed a widespread dissatisfaction with political systems based on sectarian and ethnosectarian power-sharing, which many saw as being responsible for a host of governance failures. This has given rise to demands for a wholesale change of the political systems in both countries. However, the dismantlement of identity-based power-sharing systems is a remote prospect—they are deeply entrenched, and change would depend on action from the very political elites that benefit from them.

Climate-related Security Risks and Peacebuilding in Mali

Climate-related security risks are changing the security landscape in which multilateral peacebuilding efforts are taking place. Following a similar assessment of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia in 2019, this policy paper offers another glimpse into the future of peacebuilding in the context of climate change, this time by providing an in-depth assessment of the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

Conflict Mediation and Peacebuilding in the Sahel: The Role of Maghreb Countries in an African Framework

Conflict dynamics in the Sahel are complex. The region faces a multidimensional crisis that includes the proliferation of terrorist groups, criminal networks, environmental pressures, state weaknesses and severe governance problems. In addition to this internal context, the Sahel crisis has been affected by external factors, such as the fall of Muammar Gaddafi and the civil war in Libya. Its deeper causes can be found in the structural factors of fragility in the sociopolitical dynamics of internal divisions, serial uprisings and weak states.

Cyber-incident Management: Identifying and Dealing with the Risk of Escalation

The ever-increasing dependence on information and communication technologies (ICTs) in all aspects of society raises many challenges for national crisis management agencies. These agencies need to prepare not only for new cyberthreats and cyber vulnerabilities, but also for the fact that the aftermath of a cyber incident affecting critical infrastructure has its own challenges.

Water Security and Governance in the Horn of Africa

Climate-related security risks are increasingly compounding existing political, social and economic challenges worldwide, with natural resources like water posing risks for geopolitical tensions and violent conflict. This policy paper presents a regional analysis of environment, peace and security linkages in the Horn of Africa, with a specific focus on water security and governance. It provides entry points for the international community to address the multifaceted risk landscape in the region.

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