- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
While the European Union (EU) as a collective entity has not endorsed an offensive cyber posture, several of its member states have adopted both defensive and offensive activities and capabilities in cyberspace. In doing so, these member states mirror trends in China, Russia and the United States, which seem to possess increasingly similar strategies for balancing defensive and offensive cyber operations. Given this context, EU policy will need to navigate the potential involvement of its member states in offensive operations while continuing to advocate for a defence-centric strategy that emphasizes cyber resilience. This SIPRI Research Policy Paper builds on a year and a half of SIPRI research, workshops and publications that explore ways forward for the EU to strengthen its own cybersecurity while contributing to global cyber stability.
I. Cybersecurity trends and challenges