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Mapping Cyber-related Missile and Satellite Incidents and Confidence-building Measures

2023_10_Cyber mapping_cover
Publisher: SIPRI
SIPRI, Stockholm:
November, 2023

Cyber incidents that—whether due to human error, system malfunction or intentional targeting—impact satellite and missile systems extend beyond the ongoing war in Ukraine. These systems are essential to civilian and military operations and disrupting them has the potential to elicit conventional or even nuclear retaliation. Due to the centrality of satellite and missile-related infrastructure, cyber incidents impacting the functionality of such infrastructure have served as a catalyst for previous confidence-building measures (CBMs) that may provide a template for future ones. This paper builds on SIPRI work to map cyber-related missile and satellite incidents, as well as unilateral, bilateral and multilateral CBMs to provide takeaways meant to foster greater predictability and stability in cyberspace.


I. Introduction

II. Cyber-related missile and satellite incidents

III. Cyber-related missile and satellite CBMs 

IV. Conclusions



Dr Lora Saalman is a Senior Researcher within SIPRI’s Armament and Disarmament and Conflict, Peace and Security research areas.
Larisa Saveleva Dovgal is a Research Assistant with the SIPRI Weapons of Mass Destruction Programme
Fei Su is a Researcher in the SIPRI China and Asia Security Programme.