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The Horn of Africa is undergoing far-reaching changes in its external security environment. A wide variety of international security actors—from Europe, the United States, the Middle East, the Gulf, and Asia—are currently operating in the region. As a result, the Horn of Africa has experienced a proliferation of foreign military bases and a build-up of naval forces. The external militarization of the Horn poses major questions for the future security and stability of the region.
This SIPRI Insights paper is the second of three papers devoted to the new external security politics of the Horn of Africa. The paper highlights the increasing importance of geopolitical, commercial and military competition as the driver of foreign military deployments to the Horn region. The other two papers in this series are ‘The Foreign Military Presence in the Horn of Africa Region’ (SIPRI Background Paper, April 2019) and ‘Managing the New External Security Politics of the Horn of Africa Region’ (SIPRI Policy Brief, April 2019).
II. Cold war external security engagement in the Horn of Africa
III. Post-cold war international security relations in the Horn of Africa
IV. Renewed US military engagement in the Horn of Africa
V. Middle Eastern and Gulf powers in the Horn of Africa
VI. The Horn of Africa and Indo-Pacific security
VII. The new external security politics of the Horn of Africa