The independent resource on global security

Romania and Black Sea Security

Publisher: SIPRI
December, 2018

The Black Sea region is experiencing a changing military balance. The six littoral states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine) intensified their efforts to build up their military potential after Russia’s takeover of Crimea and the start of the internationalized civil war in eastern Ukraine in 2014.

The events of 2014 have clearly had an impact on Romania’s perception of threats. Although official documents published by Romania since 2014 do not explicitly refer to Russia as a threat, they do raise concerns about security in the Black Sea region. Romania’s defence policy has also prioritized the modernization of its armed forces. As a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organ­ization (NATO), Romania has emphasized the strategic significance of the Black Sea region in NATO discussions.


I. Background

II. Defence policy

III. Armed forces structure

IV. Armed forces deployment

V. Military spending

VI. Arms holdings and acquisitions

VII. Conclusions


Siemon T. Wezeman is a Senior Researcher in the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme.
Alexandra Kuimova Alexandra Kuimova is a Researcher with UNIDIR’s Conventional Arms and Ammunition Programme. She was previously a Researcher with the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme.