- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict and peace
- Peace and development
In June 2000 the European Union made important
changes to its system for controlling the export of dual-use
technologies. In recent years the problem of how to control intangible
transfers of technology has come to be perceived as an issue
of growing importance in non-proliferation policy. The pattern
of trade has often come to include transfers of information and
knowledge needed to establish local research, development and
production in other countries.
The number of states that participate
in export control cooperation continues to grow steadily. The
states that participate in these cooperation arrangements continue
to modify their export control policies and practices in the
light of their discussions. Of particular importance are the
revisions to export control principles and procedures that are
intended to prevent unauthorized transfers of controlled items
while taking into account the changing nature of industrial organization—including
both ownership patterns and production.
The changes in export control policies
and practices in 2000 were most noticeable in Europe and, in
particular, within the EU. The legal basis for the implementation
of export controls was modified significantly during the year.
As a result of the provisions contained in the 1997 Treaty of
Amsterdam, the EU also has significant new instruments that can
be brought to bear in the field of non-proliferation and arms
control. Therefore, in Europe the discussion of non-proliferation
and export control has to take into account not only the complexities
of the changing market for controlled items but also the changing
political and legal framework associated with the evolution of
the EU. While a legal basis exists for the development of comprehensive
and coherent policies, the implementation of such policies is
still an evolving process.
Appendix 9A. Documents agreed at the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls Plenary
The appendix reproduces the texts of 'Elements for Export Controls of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)', 'Best Practices for Disposal of Surplus/Demilitarised Military Equipment', 'Extreme Vigilance: Sub-set of Tier 2 (VSL) Items, "Best Practices"’—'Best Practices for Effective Enforcement'