- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
ADAM DANIEL ROTFELD
In 1995 the debate and decisions on a new security system
in Europe focused on five issues: settlement of the conflict in Bosnia and
Herzegovina; enlargement of NATO and the EU to the east; the transatlantic
partnership, including the US presence in Europe and the European pillar
of the Atlantic Alliance; developments in Russia (the war in Chechnya and
the difficulties associated with the radical transformation and the domestic
reform policy); and the discussion initiated by the Organization for Security
and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on a model for European security for the
21st century. US, European states and EU positions on these matters revealed
both similarities and differences in approaches to and concepts of European
This chapter examines European security in the light of
the experience in Bosnia and different standpoints on the eastward enlargement
of NATO, the continued evolution of the EU and the Western European Union
(WEU), and the activities of the OSCE in 1995.
None of the existing European structures or institutions
has a monopoly in shaping a comprehensive and common security system for
Europe. Their main challenge is how to support the change and assist the
CEE states and Russia in their transition to pluralist democracy and market
economy while avoiding domestic and international instability.
The debate so far leads to several conclusions.
1. The security system will emerge from the collaboration
of various structures rather than from just one model. Cooperative approaches
to security will be developed at the bilateral, subregional and regional
levels. What the indivisibility of the security of states means in practice
is still an open question. Their integration into Western structures is
a security policy priority for the CEE states. For NATO and the EU it presents
both the challenge of reconciling legitimate Russian and CEE security interests
and a unique opportunity to influence internal processes in those states
by promoting stability in the transitional period.
2. In keeping with the 1994 Code of Conduct between states,
there is an urgent need to redefine some of the fundamental principles governing
relations between the states in the region. This applies in particular to
the principles of sovereignty in the context of non-intervention in the
internal affairs of states, of self-determination and of the integrity of
3. There is a close relationship between domestic and external
security. An integral part of the comprehensive security system and the
main way to prevent conflict should be the shaping of civil societies, democratization
of the domestic relations of a state, and respect for adopted principles,
rules and norms.
4. In the process of shaping European security, abstract
concepts, models and deliberations are far less important than the response
to the real needs of preventing conflict and settling crisis.
5. Arms control and arms reductions in Europe should remain
a priority in shaping a new security system.
The transition and transformation processes in Europe are
unfinished. The standing of both the great powers and the military security
arrangements in Europe is changing. Plans to enlarge NATO and the EU have
prompted more practical thinking in terms of establishing a 'pluralistic
security community' while avoiding creating new strategic dividing-lines
or military blocs. NATO, the EU and the OSCE have made progress in redefining
and rearranging the security of their own members. The next stage will be
implementation of an enlargement strategy with the Central European states
accompanied by building a strategic partnership to integrate Russia into
a European security community. This would revitalize the Atlantic community
and offer Russia and its western neighbours a new cooperative security arrangement.
Appendix 7A. Documents on European security
Appendix 7A contains documents on European security
including the Decision on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for
Europe for the Twenty-First Century.