- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict, peace and security
- Peace and development
Under the terms of the Gulf War cease-fire resolution (UN Security Council
Resolution 687 of 1991), the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM)
is mandated to identify and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and
long-range ballistic missile capability and to undertake `ongoing' monitoring
and verification of Iraq's obligation not to reacquire such capabilities. For
nuclear weapons, UNSCOM assists and co-operates with the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) in the implementation of this task.
Attempts in the first half of 1993 to elicit fuller information on chemical
weapon (CW) and biological weapon (BW) issues met with unco-operative responses
from Iraq. However, after a visit by the Executive Chairman to Iraq in July
1993, the situation improved considerably. Iraq has now assured UNSCOM that it
intends to assist in any way possible to facilitate smooth implementation of
ongoing monitoring and verification in order to arrive as soon as possible at
the joint objective held by UNSCOM and Iraq: to be in a position where UNSCOM
and the IAEA can report in good conscience that Iraq has fulfilled the
requirements set forth in paragraph 22 of Resolution 687 for the lifting of the
UNSCOM continued its destruction of Iraq's CW arsenal and is conducting
monitoring activities. BW inspections were also conducted.
Efforts related to ballistic missiles concentrated on: trying to establish a
definitive material balance for the Scud missiles supplied by the former Soviet
Union; trying to account for Iraq's production capacity in the ballistic
missile area; and establishing an interim monitoring regime for Iraq's
dual-capable missile facilities.
The IAEA, with the assistance and co-operation of UNSCOM, conducted 6
inspections in Iraq in 1993. Activities focused on the removal and reprocessing
of nuclear fuels, ensuring full accounting for Iraq's holdings of other nuclear
materials, identification of installations, equipment and materials which need
to be monitored, and sampling of Iraq's water courses as part of a monitoring
regime designed to observe any activity at nuclear plants. In addition, UNSCOM,
using prototype technology provided by France, conducted aerial surveys using
gamma-radiation sensors mounted on UNSCOM helicopters. The IAEA held high-level
discussions with Iraq to clarify certain outstanding issues relating to Iraq's
past nuclear programme. Iraq also provided information on foreign technical
advice and procurement of equipment and materials.
Aerial surveillance continued using both U-2 aircraft and helicopters.
The priorities for UNSCOM are now: verification and supplementation of Iraq's
declarations at a level acceptable to UNSCOM; the initiation of
monitoring inspections; drafting a mechanism for export/import
monitoring; the establishment of practice and precedent in the exercise of
UNSCOM's privileges, immunities and facilities necessary for effective and
efficient implementation of the plan for ongoing monitoring and verification;
and completion of the destruction activities related to Iraq's former CW
programme at Al Muthanna.