- Armament and disarmament
- Conflict and peace
- Peace and development
PETER WALLENSTEEN AND KARIN AXELL
In 1993, 34 major armed conflicts were waged in 28 locations around the
world. In comparison to 1992, when there were 33 major armed conflicts in 29
conflict locations, these figures show a slight increase in the number of
conflicts but a slight decrease in the number of conflict locations. All the
conflicts in 1993 were intra-state conflicts.
Major armed conflicts resulting in over 1000 battle-related deaths in 1993
alone were recorded in 13 locations: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Georgia, India, Peru, South Africa, Sri
Lanka, Tajikistan and Turkey. The conflict in Angola was the most devastating
war in terms of human casualties. The conflicts in Azerbaijan and Georgia
escalated most rapidly in 1993, resulting in both governments having to
relinquish control over territory and an increase in casualties.
In terms of the regional distribution of conflict locations over the past five
years, Europe is the only region with an upward trend, with a sharp rise from 2
conflicts in 1989 to 5 in 1993. In Asia, the number of conflict locations fell
in 1993, with no reports of conflict activity in the Indian-Pakistani and
Laotian conflicts, even though no solutions were found. In Central and South
America, three protracted conflicts continued--in Colombia, Guatemala and Peru.
Despite international peace efforts, the number of casualties in Bosnia and
Herzegovina continued to rise. Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats initially made
considerable territorial gains, later meeting determined government resistance,
with the Bosnian Government regaining some territory towards the end of the
year. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the internationally recognized state, and the
peace efforts in 1993 were aimed at restoring the country as one unit, albeit
with considerably diffused authority for the central government. The contested
incompatibility thus concerned territorial control within this state. In that
sense, it was an intra-state conflict. However, supplies and personnel were
clearly coming in across borders for all sides. It is inconceivable that
Bosnian Serb advances could have been made without support from Serbia. There
were also reports of the participation of regular troops from Croatia. Bosnian
Serbs and Bosnian Croats also continue to contest each other's territory within
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Appendix 2A. Major armed conflicts, 1993
KARIN AXELL, BIRGER HELDT, ERIK MELANDER, KJELL-ÅKE NORDQUIST, THOMAS OHLSON AND CARL ÅSBERG
Appendix 2A gives data on
the major armed conflicts of 1993.