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EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Papers

Opportunities for the European Union to Strengthen Biosecurity in Africa

The European Union (EU) has a long history of commitment to improving biological security and supporting multilateral approaches to arms controls and non-proliferation. It has supported various biosecurity programmes in recent years and continues to increase its financial support towards these, with a focus on the universalization of the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540.

Hypersonic Missile Proliferation: An Emerging European Problem

The supposed benefits of hypersonic missile technology and the reconsideration of the European security landscape following Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine may act as a catalyst for multiple European states to acquire or develop high-speed systems. Although these systems are currently challenging to develop, trends in other missile technology point towards a gradual diffusion of explicit and tacit knowledge that ultimately lowers production costs, resulting in greater affordability and accessibility.

Navigating Chinese–Russian Nuclear and Space Convergence and Divergence

This paper explores China’s and Russia’s most recent official documents and statements on their respective nuclear and space postures, combined with some corresponding technological advances. It then makes recommendations to European Union member states on topics that could be addressed in future strategic stability talks that include either one or both countries.

Implementing the 2021 Recast of the EU Dual-use Regulation: Challenges and Opportunities

In 2011, the European Union (EU) launched a review of its regulation establishing controls on exports of dual-use items. This began a process involving the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the EU that led to a recast of the regulation which enters into force on 9 September 2021. This paper examines the main underlying concerns that drove the review and recast process: exporters’ regulatory burden, uneven national implementation, exports of cybersurveillance items and advances in emerging technologies.

Effective and Comprehensive CBRN Security Risk Management in the 21st Century

The multifaceted nature of security concerns related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the 21st century requires a novel organizing principle for the international multilateral efforts focusing on the prevention of the hostile misuse of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) knowledge and materials.

A Proposal for a Ban on Destructive Anti-Satellite Testing: A Role for the European Union

International fora have pursued space security regulation with little progress. The European Union (EU) has been proactive in this regard by advocating a multilateral code of conduct for outer space activities, however, it failed to survive negotiations. Further concrete measures to strengthen space security on a multilateral scale have been slow, as states are polarized on the subject of weaponization in outer space. Among threats to space security, destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) testing has emerged as a particularly destabilizing force.

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