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Comparing Responses to Climate-related Security Risks Among the EU, NATO and the OSCE

EU, NATO, OSCE cover
Publisher: SIPRI
SIPRI, Stockholm:
April, 2023

This SIPRI Policy Report compares responses to climate-related security risks by the European Union (EU), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). All three organizations have formulated ambitious policies in this area in recent years. However, while they have come a long way in raising the interlinkages between climate, peace and security on their agendas, more is required to achieve their various ambitions. This report recommends three ways forward for policymakers: (a) enhance cooperation between relevant European regional organizations; (b) increase leadership from member states, including through dedicated bodies; and (c) strengthen financial instruments aimed at supporting responses to climate-related security risks.


1. Climate change in a new security landscape

2. Context

3. Discursive framing

4. Institutional design

5. Policy action

6. Ambition

7. Complementarities and synergies

8. Advancing multilateral cooperation


Anniek Barnhoorn is a Policy and Projects Officer working on SIPRI’s Major Initiatives.