The independent resource on global security

Business and Security: Public–Private Sector Relationships in a New Security Environment

Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-927450-9
pp. 328

This book explores a broad span of issues and challenges relevant to the private–public sector security dialogue and cooperation, under six thematic headings:

  • The general framework: goals and norms
  • Cutting off resources for terrorism and crime: the global and European dimensions
  • Business and conflict
  • Preserving the legitimate economy and critical infrastructure
  • The economic consequences of terrorism: can we afford to be safe?
  • The security–economy linkage in a global perspective

The private business sector suffered both directly and indirectly from the terrorist strikes of 11 September 2001. Many business workers perished in the New York World Trade Center, and the insurance, transport and tourism industries were hard hit by the aftermath. Restrictions imposed in the name of security made business travel and movement of goods more complicated. The private sector was called upon to support the fight against terrorism actively with tougher controls on money transfers and on the export of dangerous materials and technologies.

These events offered a striking case of the growing interdependence of the private and public sectors in tackling present-day security challenges. The impact of the private sector, for good or ill, in areas of conflict has long been recognized. Private business is at the centre of the latest concerns over the vulnerability of crucial infrastructures, including energy supply. Systematic public–private sector consultation and partnership are needed to tackle these problems, but neither the principles nor comprehensive mechanisms for such cooperation have yet been identified.

This book is based on the proceedings of a conference on Business and Security, held at Vaduz, Liechtenstein, in September 2003. It brings together reflections on general and specific aspects of public–private sector interaction, from a variety of experts in business, government, international organizations and the academic world. For completeness and balance, it also enquires into the costs of security and includes perspectives from Africa and the Arab world. It offers new reference material to help in the further exploration of this important subject.


Introduction. Business and security: Public–private sector interface and interdependence at the turn of the 21st century

Alyson J.K. Bailes


Part I. The general framework: Goals and norms

Editor's remarks

1. Security and the responsibilities of the public and private sectors

István Gyarmati

2. Public–private sector cooperation

Erik Belfrage

3. What price values?

Daniel Tarschys


Part II. Cutting off resources for terrorism and crime: The global and European dimensions

Editor's remarks

4. An international response to terrorism

Claes Norgren

5. Counter-terrorism measures undertaken under UN Security Council auspices

Thomas J. Biersteker

6. Strategic export controls and the private sector

Evan R. Berlack

7. The European Union: New threats and the problem of coherence

Niall Burgess and David Spence

8. Banking in an international and European framework: The case of Liechtenstein

Georges S. Baur

9. The resources and tactics of terrorism: A view from Russia

Vadim Volkov


Part III. Business and conflict

Editor's remarks

10. Business investment, humanitarian problems and conflict

John J. Maresca

11. Conflict diamonds: The De Beers Group and the Kimberley Process

Annex 11A. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

Andrew Bone

12. Oil and conflict: Lundin Petroleum's experience in Sudan

Christine Batruch

13. The role of humanitarian organizations: The case of the International Committee of the Red Cross

Gilles Carbonnier


Part IV. Preserving the legitimate economy and critical infrastructure

Editor's remarks

14. The security of business: A view from the security industry

Crispin Black

15. Survival planning for business: A view from Nokia

Urho Ilmonen

16. Defending against cyber terrorism: Preserving the legitimate economy

Olivia Bosch

17. The concept of critical infrastructure protection

Jan Metzger

18. Critical energy system infrastructure protection in Europe and the legitimate economy

Kevin Rosner


Part V. The economic consequences of terrorism: Can we afford to be safe?

Editor's remarks

19. The economic consequences of terrorism

Patrick Lenain


Part VI. The security–economy linkage in a global perspective

Editor's remarks

20. A view from the League of Arab States

Saad Alfarargi

21. A view from Africa

Said Adejumobi

Annex. A comment on immigration controls and education in the United States

Phyllis O. Bonanno



Editors' remarks

Appendix 1. Institutions in the field of security, active or interested in the public-private sector interface: Government and international institutions, academic and research bodies, and non-governmental organizations

Isabel Frommelt

Appendix 2. Private-sector organizations and institutions, active or interested in the field of security

Isabel Frommelt

Appendix 3. Select bibliography

Isabel Frommelt


Alyson J. K. Bailes was Director of SIPRI from 2002–2007.