The independent resource on global security

Safeguards Against Nuclear Proliferation

Publisher: Almqvist & Wiksell
ISBN 0-262-19137-7
114 pp.

Non-proliferation is not a new aim. International safeguards against the use for military purposes of nuclear material and equipment were introduced almost as soon as the first exchange of such items took place between states. The principal aim of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which entered into force in March 1970, was to help maintain the political and strategic stability of the world by ensuring that there would be no increase in the number of states manufacturing nuclear weapons. At the same time it was so conceived as to avoid hampering the development and use of nuclear energy.

The NPT provides that non-nuclear-weapon states that are parties to it must accept the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency on all their peaceful activities. This book outlines the development of the Agency's safeguards—both in the framework of the NPT and outside it. It discusses some of the practical problems encountered in the application of safeguards and highlights the policies adopted by suppliers of nuclear material and equipment in order to live up to their obligations under the Treaty. In addition, it mentions some action that could be taken to facilitate the application of effective and non-discriminatory safeguards against the misuse of nuclear material.

Safeguards Against Nuclear Proliferation was written in the light of the situation of late 1974. It will help to allow an assessment to be made of one of the main items of discussion at the Review Conference of Parties to the NPT, in May 1975.


1. The background

2. Some basic issues

3. The application

4. Funds and figures

5. Further developments


Appendix 1. Extracts from IAEA document INFCIRC/209, 3 September 1974, and INFCIRC/209/Add.2, 24 October 1974

Appendix 2. The members of the International Atomic Energy Agency

Appendix 2A. Situation on 31 December 1974 with respect to the signature of, or accession to the NPT by non-nuclear-weapon States, and the conclusion of safeguards agreements between the Agency and these States in connection with the NPT

Appendix 2B. Agreements providing for safeguards other than those in connection with the NPT, approved by the Board as of 31 December 1974

Appendix 3. INFCIRC/153, the 'Blue Book'. The structure and content of agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Appendix 4. INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, 16 September 1968. The Agency's Safeguards System of 1965 (as provisionally extended in 1966 and 1968)

Appendix 5. The Agency's inspectorate