7. Europe: towards new security arrangements
In 1995 the debate and decisions on a new security system in Europe focused on five issues: settlement of the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina; enlargement of NATO and the EU to the east; the transatlantic partnership, including the US presence in Europe and the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance; developments in Russia (the war in Chechnya and the difficulties associated with the radical transformation and the domestic reform policy); and the discussion initiated by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on a model for European security for the 21st century. US, European states and EU positions on these matters revealed both similarities and differences in approaches to and concepts of European security.
This chapter examines European security in the light of the experience in Bosnia and different standpoints on the eastward enlargement of NATO, the continued evolution of the EU and the Western European Union (WEU), and the activities of the OSCE in 1995.
None of the existing European structures or institutions has a monopoly in shaping a comprehensive and common security system for Europe. Their main challenge is how to support the change and assist the CEE states and Russia in their transition to pluralist democracy and market economy while avoiding domestic and international instability.
The debate so far leads to several conclusions.
1. The security system will emerge from the collaboration of various structures rather than from just one model. Cooperative approaches to security will be developed at the bilateral, subregional and regional levels. What the indivisibility of the security of states means in practice is still an open question. Their integration into Western structures is a security policy priority for the CEE states. For NATO and the EU it presents both the challenge of reconciling legitimate Russian and CEE security interests and a unique opportunity to influence internal processes in those states by promoting stability in the transitional period.
2. In keeping with the 1994 Code of Conduct between states, there is an urgent need to redefine some of the fundamental principles governing relations between the states in the region. This applies in particular to the principles of sovereignty in the context of non-intervention in the internal affairs of states, of self-determination and of the integrity of states.
3. There is a close relationship between domestic and external security. An integral part of the comprehensive security system and the main way to prevent conflict should be the shaping of civil societies, democratization of the domestic relations of a state, and respect for adopted principles, rules and norms.
4. In the process of shaping European security, abstract concepts, models and deliberations are far less important than the response to the real needs of preventing conflict and settling crisis.
5. Arms control and arms reductions in Europe should remain a priority in shaping a new security system.
The transition and transformation processes in Europe are unfinished. The standing of both the great powers and the military security arrangements in Europe is changing. Plans to enlarge NATO and the EU have prompted more practical thinking in terms of establishing a 'pluralistic security community' while avoiding creating new strategic dividing-lines or military blocs. NATO, the EU and the OSCE have made progress in redefining and rearranging the security of their own members. The next stage will be implementation of an enlargement strategy with the Central European states accompanied by building a strategic partnership to integrate Russia into a European security community. This would revitalize the Atlantic community and offer Russia and its western neighbours a new cooperative security arrangement.
Appendix 7A. Documents on European security
Appendix 7A contains documents on European security including the Decision on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century.