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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
SIPRI Update: Global Security & Arms Control
Issues, events and publications in conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament

December 2012

In this issue:

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For the bathroom or the missile factory? Why dual-use trade controls matter

Dr Sibylle Bauer

What do cooking pots and missiles have in common? Or toothpaste and chemical weapons? In both cases, a so-called dual-use item: the same machine tool can be used in the production of both pots and certain missile parts, while fluoride compounds, industrial chemicals that are needed to manufacture the deadly nerve agent sarin are also used in common bathroom products. We cannot live without cooking pots and toothpaste, but we want to strictly limit who can produce missiles and prevent the production of chemical weapons altogether. No wonder dual-use goods—those with both civilian and military applications—pose so many dilemmas for policymakers, export licensing authorities and frontline customs officers.

Read the essay.


New SIPRI research project to investigate militarization of social media through a gender lens

SIPRI Senior Researcher Dr Susan T. Jackson has been awarded 19.8 million Swedish kronor ($2.97 million) by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet) to conduct research on the gendered militarization of social media, leading an international team of eight researchers based in four cities in three countries: Sweden, the United Kingdom and Germany. Entitled Militarization 2.0, the project includes a series of meetings, conferences and publications and will culminate in a foundation text on the topic as well as a public database. The project is the first wide-scale mapping of social media in the arms and military services industry and the military games industry. Read more about the project (in Swedish). Contact Susan Jackson for more information.

Image: Dr Susan T. Jackson
Dr Susan T. Jackson

China's Arctic Aspirations

Aware of the suspicions some countries have about its intentions in the Arctic, China is downplaying its interest in the region's minerals, oil and gas and is instead focusing on climate change and shipping routes. Nevertheless, China is determined not to be sidelined in decisions that it believes will directly affect its economic interests, according to the latest SIPRI Policy Paper, China's Arctic Aspirations, by Linda Jakobson and Jingchao Peng. Calling on the SIPRI Arctic team's unique country expertise, the report outlines China's evolving Arctic policy and activities, explains the thinking behind them, and highlights the diversity of views within China on how it should approach Arctic issues
. Download the Policy Paper. Read the press release in English or Swedish (PDF). Watch a video about the report.
 SIPRI YouTube clip with Linda Jakobson

SIPRI contributes to Norwegian risk assessments for arms exports 

During the summer of 2012, the SIPRI Arms Transfers and Dual-use and Arms Trade Control programmes cooperated with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) to develop a checklist for Norwegian risk assessments for arms exports. The MFA has now adopted a checklist to limit the risk that Norwegian arms exports will be delivered to states that are unstable and have a poor record on human rights and international humanitarian law. The checklist places particular emphasis on the risk that exported military equipment could be used for repression or human rights abuses. Paul Holtom will present the checklist at a meeting on 18 December 2012 at the Norwegian parliament. Download the Norwegian export control report (PDF, in Norwegian). Read a news article in English explaining the contents of the checklist. Contact Dr Sibylle Bauer, Mark Bromley or Dr Paul Holtom for more information.
Image: the Norwegian coat of arms

SIPRI map of multilateral peace operation deployments out now

SIPRI has released a new map of multilateral peace operation deployments. The map presents a snapshot of deployments worldwide as of September 2012, using the latest data available. It shows where missions are taking place, when they started, how large they are and which organizations and coalitions are conducting them. Comprehensive data on multilateral peace operations is available in the SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database, including fatalities, costs, mission mandates, national personnel contributions and lead nations. Download the map.
SIPRI map of multilateral peace operation deployments

SIPRI Yearbook 2012 now available in Arabic

The Centre for Arab Unity Studies (CAUS) in Beirut has published an Arabic translation of SIPRI Yearbook 2012. Funding for the translation was provided by the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport. For more information (in Arabic) visit the CAUS website. Read more about editions of the SIPRI Yearbook in other languages.
Image: the cover of the Arabic translation of SIPRI Yearbook 2012

Save the dates ...

  • 18 February 2013: Launch of the SIPRI Top 100—the 100 largest arms producing companies worldwide.
  • 18 March 2013: Launch of SIPRI's international arms transfers data—details of all international sales, transfers and donations of major conventional weapons in 2012.
  • 15 April 2013: Launch of SIPRI's world military expenditure data—comprehensive information on global, regional and national trends in military spending.
  • June 2013: Launch of SIPRI Yearbook 2013—cutting-edge information and analysis on developments in armaments, disarmament and international security.
Contact SIPRI Communications Director Stephanie Blenckner for more information.

SIPRI Yearbook 2013
Image: Season's greetings from snowy SIPRI

Upcoming SIPRI events and activities

14 Dec.
  SIPRI to host World Bank expert workshop
SIPRI will host a World Bank expert workshop on local violence in developing countries. The aim of the workshop is to examine interactions between donors, conflict actors and local communities. The workshop’s outcomes will inform the World Development Report 2014: Managing Risk for Development (WDR 2014). The event will be co-chaired by Tilman Brück, SIPRI’s Director designate and Rasmus Heltberg, Senior Social Development Specialist and member of the core team for WDR 2014. For more information contact Mikael Grinbaum.
14–16 Feb. 2013
Washington, DC
  The Missing Peace: Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-conflict Settings
Please note that this symposium was initially planned for 1–3 November 2012, but has now been rescheduled.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP), the Human Rights Center at the University of California, Berkeley, the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and SIPRI North America will convene a group of scholars, policymakers, practitioners, and military and civil society actors to examine the issue of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. The group will identify gaps in knowledge and reporting, and explore how to increase the effectiveness of current responses to such violence. The keynote speaker will be Zainab Hawa Bangura, UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict. The symposium, which will also feature a young scholar exchange forum, will be broadcast via the Internet. Resources for both participants and media are available online.
14–15 June 2013
  17th Annual International Conference on Economics and Security
SIPRI is pleased to announce that the 17th Annual International Conference on Economics and Security will be held at SIPRI in Stockholm on 14 and 15 June 2013. The conference is co-organized by SIPRI with Economists for Peace and Security and will cover a wide range of topics relating to the economics and political economy of conflict, peace, security, military expenditure and armaments. The organizers have issued a call for papers on these subjects. Please email titles and abstracts (max. 300 words) to Sam Perlo-Freeman before 1 April 2013. Read more about the conference.

Recent SIPRI events and activities

29 Nov.

  Image: Arctic Council activities discussed at Stockholm event
Image: Linda Jakobson (centre) speaks at the Stockholm conference on the Arctic Council

Arctic Council activities discussed in Stockholm

SIPRI’s Arctic Futures, a project within the SIPRI Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, hosted a conference entitled The Arctic Council in transition: Nordic to North American leadership. Officials and experts from Arctic and non-Arctic countries met to discuss the lessons learned during Sweden's Arctic Council chairmanship, as well as expectations for the incoming chair, Canada. Participants discussed the situation of indigenous peoples, the role of industry in the Arctic, environmental issues, the question of observer status in the Arctic Council and the role of the Council in the region’s security governance. SIPRI is grateful to the Canadian Embassy in Stockholm for supporting the conference. For more information about the event contact Kristofer Bergh.

10 Dec.

  SIPRI expert gives presentation on developments in North Korea
Dr Mathieu Duchâtel, who heads SIPRI's China and International Peace and Security Project, attended the 7th Sino–European Strategic Dialogue, where he gave a presentation on recent trends in North Korea and their possible effects on Chinese and European foreign policy interests. The dialogue was co-hosted by the Asia Centre and the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations. Contact Mathieu Duchâtel for more information. Read more about SIPRI’s China and International Peace and Security project.
5 Dec.

  SIPRI panel discussion on arms exports and authoritarian regimes
2012 Right Livelihood Award winner Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) was represented during a panel discussion on arms exports and authoritarian regimes. Using the example of the Arab Spring, the discussion highlighted the interaction between civil society, the research community, parliaments and governments in mapping, understanding and addressing the risks of arms exports to sensitive destinations under authoritarian rule.
5 Dec.

  SIPRI Yearbook 2012 Italian summary launch
The Torino World Affairs Institute (T.wai) held a roundtable discussion to launch the Italian translation of the summary of SIPRI Yearbook 2012. The roundtable featured experts from three major Italian universities: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan), Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Pisa) and Sapienza University of Rome, and was moderated by Stefano Ruzza, T.wai’s Head of Research. The discussion followed the structure of the summary booklet, taking in trends in conflict, peacekeeping operations, and armaments and military technology. Download the Italian summary of SIPRI Yearbook 2012 (PDF) or read it online. Read summaries in other languages.

5 Dec.

  Concluding the Common Position review and the arms trade treaty negotiations
SIPRI Senior Researchers Sibylle Bauer and Mark Bromley attended a one-day seminar organized by the European External Action Service (EEAS), the Group for Research and Information on Peace and Security (GRIP) and Saferworld. The seminar focused on the implementation of the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports and ongoing efforts to negotiate a legally binding international arms trade treaty. Bromley spoke about the enforcement of arms embargoes by EU member states through the implementation of transit and transshipment controls. Contact Dr Sibylle Bauer or Mark Bromley for more information.

4 Dec.
New York
  SIPRI expert presents at United Nations headquarters
SIPRI Senior Researcher and head of the Countering Illicit Trafficking–Mechanism Assessment Projects (CIT-MAP), Hugh Griffiths, briefed incoming members of the United Nations Security Council on current and emerging proliferation trends involving military equipment and dual-use items transported via sea and air destined for or originating in states under comprehensive UN sanctions. The briefing was organized by the Japanese Mission to the UN.
Contact Hugh Griffiths for more information.
3 Dec. Arlington, Virginia
  SIPRI expert briefs United States Government officials
SIPRI Senior Researcher Hugh Griffiths presented SIPRI maritime trafficking research and findings to US Government officials and analysts at a meeting on commercial maritime narcotics trafficking sponsored by the US Government. Contact Hugh Griffiths for more information.
29–30 Nov.

  SIPRI researcher presents on World Health Organization process
SIPRI researcher Rachel Irwin attended the Anthropology Meets International Relations seminar at the Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt. The workshop sought to move beyond methodology by exploring the potentials, prospects and pitfalls of interdisciplinarity between anthropology and international relations. Irwin presented research on the World Health Organization's policy processes. Contact Rachel Irwin for more information.
27–28 Nov.

  SIPRI expert presents on arms procurement policies in Asia
Dr Mathieu Duchâtel presented on the links between arms procurement policies of Asian states and regional peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region at the Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue, hosted by the China Center for Contemporary World Studies. Contact Dr Mathieu Duchâtel for more information.
27 Nov.

  SIPRI researcher presents on health and security in Turkey
SIPRI researcher Rachel Irwin gave a lecture on health and security at the Global Health Diplomacy Executive Course, organized by the Graduate Institute Geneva, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the Turkish Ministry of Health.
Contact Rachel Irwin for more information.
23–24 Nov.

  SIPRI co-organizes Arctic conference in Poland
SIPRI, together with the University of Lower Silesia (Wrocław) and the Marie Curie Sklodowska University (Lublin), organized a conference entitled The Arctic in the First Decade of the 21st Century: Between Competition and Cooperation. The Canadian Embassy in Poland provided partial funding for the conference. SIPRI researchers Kristofer Bergh and Ekaterina Klimenko presented their research at the conference, which also featured a range of speakers on Arctic issues. Contact Kristofer Bergh for more information. Read more about SIPRI’s Arctic Futures programme.

22–23 Nov.
  SIPRI experts attend peace operations meetings in Brazil
Dr Neil Melvin and Xenia Avezov of SIPRI's Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme attended the second regional dialogue meetings of the New Geopolitics of Peace Operations: A Dialogue with Emerging Powers initiative. The meetings, organized by SIPRI in partnership with the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), brought together a range of leading experts, government officials and representatives of international organizations to discuss the future challenges of peace operations and the role that South America will play in the future global peacekeeping landscape.
Read more about SIPRI's New Geopolitics of Peace Operations project or contact Xenia Avezov for more information.
22–23 Nov.
Kuala Lumpur
  SIPRI expert presents on strategic trade controls
Dr Sibylle Bauer, Director of SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme, facilitated and presented at the Regional Seminar on Investigating and Prosecuting Export Control Violations. She gave an overview of key issues in strategic trade control and presented challenges of strategic trade control prosecutions. The seminar was hosted by the Malaysian Ministry of Trade and Industry’s Strategic Trade Secretariat, in cooperation with the EU Programme Cooperation in Dual-use Export Control. Licensing officers, investigators and prosecutors from Germany, Malaysia, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom and Viet Nam discussed approaches to investigating and prosecuting strategic trade control offences. Investigators and prosecutors from the EU presented past cases. Read more about the EU Cooperation in Dual-Use Export Control or contact Dr Sibylle Bauer.

18–20 Nov.
Chaudfontaine, Belgium
  SIPRI experts give presentations on export controls
SIPRI researchers Ivana Mićić and Dr Andrea Viski of SIPRI's Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme took part in the third Chaudfontaine Group meeting on export controls organized by the University of Liège. This year's topic was ‘European dual-use trade controls: Beyond materiality and borders’. Mićić and Viski covered two areas: the control of intangible transfers of dual-use items and the extra-territorial provisions applied to dual-use trade. Viski presented a UK case study, while Mićić focused on Croatia. A book on these issues will be published in mid-2013. Contact Ivana Mićić or Dr Andrea Viski for more information.


SIPRI in the media

Ian Anthony appeared on Swedish TV4 speaking about Syria's chemical weapons.

John Hart spoke about Syria's chemical weapons for news agency IPS.

Tilman Brück was interviewed about the costs of war by Der Tagesspiegel.

Mark Bromley was quoted in the printed issue of Der Spiegel (read an English translation) on German arms exports and spoke to Deutsche Welle about the same issue.

Paul Holtom was quoted in the Global Post (South Africa) on China's supply of small arms to Africa.

Bernt Berger was quoted in a Deutsche Welle article (in Chinese) on US relations with China.

Hugh Griffiths was quoted in a Time article on the repair and transport by air and sea of Syrian helicopter gunships from Russia.


Recent publications

Summaries of SIPRI Yearbook 2012 now available in 7 languages
SIPRI Yearbook 2012: resum en catalàSIPRI Yearbook 2012: Kurzfassung auf DeutschSIPRI Yearbook 2012: resumen en españolSIPRI Yearbook 2012: Résumé en françaisSIPRI Yearbook 2012: Sintesi in italianoSIPRI Yearbook 2012: Samenvatting in het Nederlands SIPRI Yearbook 2012: sammanfattning på svenska
Measuring international arms transfers

Paul Holtom, Mark Bromley and Verena Simmel
Consistent, comprehensive data on international arms transfers enables the identification over time of trends in international arms transfers at the global, regional and national levels. There are several different methods for measuring international arms transfers. This Fact Sheet describes three sources of information for measuring international arms transfers: SIPRI’s measure of the volume of arms transfers; the financial value estimate of the United States Congressional Research Service (CRS); and national government data on the financial value of arms export agreements and deliveries. Using German arms exports in 2011 as a case study, it compares the methods used by SIPRI, the CRS and the German Government to measure German arms exports. Download the Fact Sheet.
 SIPRI SIPRI Policy Paper
China's Arctic Aspirations

Linda Jakobson and Jingchao Peng
China wants to be part of the Arctic order and, as a rising power, emphasizes the global implications of the Arctic’s melting ice. Although several non-Chinese observers have described China’s actions in the Arctic as ‘more assertive’, and the Chinese Government has taken steps to protect what it perceives as its key interests in the region, China’s Arctic policies are still in a nascent stage of formulation. This Policy Paper represents the first comprehensive mapping of the agencies and individuals involved in the formulation of Arctic policies and an assessment of the motives underlying China’s Arctic activities. The authors show that, while China recognizes that it is an ‘Arctic outsider’—without sovereign rights in the Arctic—it nevertheless sees numerous economic opportunities opening up in there. It consequently seeks to influence discussions and decisions on how the Arctic should be governed. Download the Policy Paper.

SIPRI Yearbook 2012: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security
The 43rd edition of the SIPRI Yearbook includes coverage of developments during 2011 in armed conflicts, multilateral peace operations, military expenditure, arms production, international arms transfers, world nuclear forces and fissile material stocks, nuclear arms control and non-proliferation, reduction of security threats from chemical and biological materials, conventional arms control, controls on security-related international transfers and multilateral arms embargoes. Read an online summary of SIPRI Yearbook 2012 or order a copy.

report SIPRI Policy Paper
Verifying a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty: Technical and Organizational Considerations

Shannon N. Kile and Robert E. Kelley
The renewed momentum behind international efforts to negotiate a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) has focused attention on how the proposed ban on the production of fissile material will be verified: what type of organization should be given this responsibility and what technical expertise will it require? The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is often identified as the obvious choice for this role, given its long experience in implementing nuclear safeguards agreements. Many of the tools and procedures developed by the IAEA for safeguards purposes could be directly applied to verifying a future FMCT. However, without changes to its existing safeguards mandate and practices, the IAEA would be hindered in verifying treaty compliance in the nuclear weapon-possessing states. This Policy Paper proposes an alternative arrangement that, while taking advantage of the IAEA's experience and expertise, creates a verification body tailored specifically for an FMCT with the requisite legal mandate and technical capabilities. Download the Policy Paper.

SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security
Implementing an arms trade treaty: mapping assistance to strengthen arms transfer controls

Paul Holtom and Mark Bromley
It is widely recognized that many states parties to an arms trade treaty (ATT) will need assistance to fulfil their treaty obligations. The creation of an ATT will require the expansion of existing assistance programmes as well as the development of new approaches and efforts specifically designed to assist states with treaty implementation. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of existing assistance could help to ensure that mistakes made under other instruments are not repeated and enable actors to draw on existing good practices. This paper therefore maps existing assistance efforts aimed at strengthening transfer controls for conventional arms, dual-use goods or small arms and light weapons (SALW). Download the Insights paper.


More publications

Other publications

Depauw, S., ‘The European Union’s involvement in negotiating an arms trade treaty’, Nonproliferation papers no. 23, Dec. 2012.

Irwin, R., 'The symbolic properties of international health agreements', Anthropology News (Dec. 2012).

Viski, A., ‘South Africa–IAEA deal presages Africa’s nuclear interest’, World Export Control Review, vol. 17 (Nov. 2012).
  © SIPRI 2012. ISSN 1654-8264. Contact SIPRI by email:; telephone: +46 8/655 97 00; fax: +46 8/655 97 33;
or post: SIPRI, Signalistgatan 9, SE-169 70 Solna, Sweden, or visit us online at