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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
SIPRI Update: Global Security & Arms Control
Issues, events and publications in conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament

April 2012

In this issue:


A tale of two summits: the Group of Eight and NATO

Dr Ian Anthony

Next month’s NATO summit will be held in Chicago, in an election year. While it will be hard to find anyone willing to go on record as saying that the choice of location is intended to be a boost for President Obama, it’s difficult to interpret it any other way. The NATO summit will take place at the same time as a meeting of leaders of the most industrialized countries, the Group of Eight (G8). Perhaps unfortunately for NATO, both the agenda and the format of the G8 summit make it the more interesting and important of the meetings.

Continue reading ...

Source: NATO

World military spending levels out after 13 years of increases, says SIPRI

World military expenditure in 2011 totalled $1.74 trillion, almost unchanged since 2010 in real terms, according to new data released on 17 April by SIPRI. Read the press release in English, French, Spanish and Swedish. Access the new data, find out more about the SIPRI Military Expenditure Project or contact Dr Sam Perlo-Freeman for more information.
Source: AverageJoe via Flickr

Video of arms transfers data launch events in New York and Washington now available online!

SIPRI Senior Researcher Dr Paul Holtom gave presentations at events on 20 and 23 March to coincide with the release of SIPRI’s new data on international arms transfers. On 20 March Dr Holtom participated in a panel discussion at the International Peace Institute (IPI) on the importance of tracking arms transfers, a video stream of which is accessible online. He also gave an interview for the IPI’s Global Observatory. On 23 March, Dr Holtom took part in a panel discussion in Washington, DC on international arms transfers and the Arms Trade Treaty. A full video recording of the discussion is also available online. Contact Paul Holtom for more information.

Source: C-Span

SIPRI receives a grant for a new project on small arms in post conflict areas

The SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme and SIPRI's Countering Illicit Trafficking–Mechanism Assessment Projects (CIT–MAP) will jointly carry out a project on the need to strengthen the control and oversight of the supply of small and light weapons (SALW) and military equipment during post-conflict security sector reform-related programmes as a means of minimizing the risk of conflict, instability and corruption. The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office is funding the project. Contact Dr Paul Holtom or Hugh Griffiths for more information.

Visit SIPRI Researcher’s comprehensive database on nuclear export controls

SIPRI Researcher Andrea Viski maintains the Nuclear Export Controls blog, a database of searchable information related to export controls and trade-related nuclear non-proliferation issues. The blog is updated daily and features relevant articles from international perspectives. In addition, the site offers helpful links as well as a calendar of events for nuclear-related workshops, courses and conferences. Contact Andrea Viski for further information.


Save the date!

  • 4 June: Launch of the SIPRI Yearbook 2012 – new data on world nuclear forces and cutting-edge information and analysis on developments in armaments, disarmament and international security
           Contact SIPRI Communications Director Stephanie Blenckner for more information.

Upcoming SIPRI events and activities

24 May
  Presentation on health in fragile states
On the occasion of the World Health Assembly in Geneva, the SIPRI Global Health and Security Programme will organize a side-event on health in fragile states during which it will present its commissioned research and policy recommendations on this issue. Anders Nordström, Swedish Ambassador for Global Health, will be one of the distinguished speakers. Read more about the Global Health and Security Programme’s work or contact Caroline Säfström for more information.
11 May
10:00 am
  Launch of the SIPRI Yearbook 2011 in Chinese
SIPRI, in cooperation with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association (CACDA), will launch the SIPRI Yearbook 2011 in Chinese. SIPRI Senior Researcher Neil Melvin, Director of the Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, will give a presentation on the growing uncertainty and fragility of international security and emerging powers. Contact Jingchao Peng, Research Assistant for the SIPRI China and Global Security Programme, for more information.
7 May
Washington, DC
  The decline of armed conflict: will it continue?
SIPRI North America will host a conversation about the causes and future implications of the recent decline in armed conflict. SIPRI North America board member Professor Sissela Bok will moderate a discussion between Joshua Goldstein, Professor Emeritus at American University and author of the recent book Winning the War on War: the Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide and SIPRI contributor Dr Peter Wallensteen, Dag Hammarskjöld Professor of Peace and Conflict Research, at Uppsala University. Contact Dr. Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Executive Director of SIPRI North America, for further details.

27 April,
  Launch of the SIPRI Yearbook 2011 in Ukrainian
The Ukrainian translation of the SIPRI Yearbook 2011, published by the Razumkov Centre (Ukrainian Centre for Economic and Political Studies, UCEPS), will be launched on the occasion of a roundtable discussion entitled 'Partnership with NATO in Ukraine’s non-bloc policy: a place, a status, and prospects' in Kiev. The translation is funded by a grant from the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport. Contact Stephanie Blenckner, SIPRI’s Communications Director, for further information.


Recent SIPRI events and activities

17–18 Apr.
Washington, DC and NYC
  SIPRI North America organizes events on the occasion of the release of SIPRI new data on military expenditure
SIPRI released its new data on military expenditure on 17 April. Dr Sam Perlo-Freeman, Head of the SIPRI Military Expenditure Project, presented the data at an event on the same day in Washington, DC hosted by SIPRI North America. Dr Perlo-Freeman also participated in a roundtable discussion at the event alongside Dr Gordon Adams, a Distinguished Fellow at the Stimson Center, and Dr Nora Bensahel, Deputy Director of Studies and Senior Fellows at the Center for a New American Security. On 18 April, Dr Perlo-Freeman took part in a hands-on session for disarmament diplomats at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The session was co-organized by SIPRI North America and the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA). Contact Masha Keller, 
Program and Office Manager at SIPRI North America and Dr Perlo-Freeman for further information.

17 Apr.
  SIPRI Researcher presents at event on the human cost of military spending
SIPRI's military expenditure data launch coincided with the Global Day of Action on Military Spending (GDAMS). To mark the occasion, the Office of the Director-General of the UN Office in Geneva, the Geneva Branch of the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs, the UN Institute for Disarmament Research and the International Peace Bureau organized a seminar entitled ‘The human cost of military spending’ at the Palais des Nations. SIPRI Researcher Helen Wilandh gave a presentation on global and regional trends in military spending. Contact Helen Wilandh for further information.

6 Apr.
Los Angeles
  SIPRI experts brief University of Southern California students on Arctic issues
SIPRI Senior Researcher Dr Neil Melvin, Head of the Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, and SIPRI Researcher Kristofer Bergh participated in the symposium Conflict and Cooperation in the New Arctic, which took place at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles. Melvin gave a presentation entitled ‘Energy and environmental security: Russia and the EU’, while Bergh presented on regional cooperation and the Arctic Council. The symposium was part of a collaboration between SIPRI and USC aimed at preparing a group of USC students for a visit to Sweden, Finland and Russia to conduct field studies on Arctic politics in May 2012. Contact Neil Melvin or Kristofer Bergh for further information.
2 Apr.
San Diego
  SIPRI Researchers participate in the International Studies Association's annual conference
SIPRI Senior Researchers Dr Susan Jackson and Dr Neil Melvin and SIPRI Researcher Kristofer Bergh took part in the annual conference of the International Studies Association (ISA). Jackson presented a paper entitled ‘Militarization's new media footprint through a gendered lens’, which she co-authored with Emma Bjerten, as part of a panel on feminist security studies in the global information age. Melvin and Bergh participated in a panel entitled ‘Comparing arctic strategies: the sources of national policies for the high north’, which was co-organized by SIPRI and the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies (Institutt for forsvarsstudier, IFS). Melvin's paper discussed Russia's Arctic policy, while Bergh's dealt with the Arctic policies of the USA and Canada. Browse the conference program, or read more about the ISA. For more information, contact Susan Jackson, Neil Melvin or Kristofer Bergh.
28–29 Mar.
 Banja Luka   SIPRI Researcher chairs meeting on customs and interagency cooperation
SIPRI Researcher Ivana Mićić of the Export Control project chaired a meeting on the role of customs and interagency cooperation in dual use export control enforcement. The Indirect Taxation Authority and Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina organized the event within the framework of the European Union (EU) programme EU Cooperation in Export Control of Dual-use Goods, which is implemented by the German Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA). Read more about the EU cooperation programme or contact Ivana Mićić for more information.

27–29 Mar.
  SIPRI Researcher presents at a seminar on the arms trade treaty negotiations
SIPRI Senior Researcher Mark Bromley participated in a regional seminar for countries in the Middle East organized by the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) in cooperation with the EU and the government of Lebanon. The seminar was one of a series of such events aimed at supporting the preparatory process leading up to the UN Conference on the arms trade treaty (ATT) in 2012. Bromley gave a presentation on issues relating to the future implementation of an ATT. Read more on the seminar series, find out more about SIPRI's work towards an ATT or contact Mark Bromley for more information.
27–28 Mar.
Washington, DC
  Affordable World Security Conference
SIPRI was a partner of the Affordable World Security conference, which convened top thinkers and distinguished guests to think through how to rebalance limited budgetary resources to focus on the most pressing 21st century threats to human security, including resource competition and degradation of the global commons.  SIPRI Director Dr Bates Gill took part in a panel examining the inefficiencies of current military spending and ways to enhance security through less militarized means.

27 Mar.
  SIPRI Researcher presents at a symposium on the Arctic
Senior Researcher Dr Neil Melvin presented the work conducted by the SIPRI Arctic Futures project at a symposium on research about the Arctic in the social and political sciences hosted by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat and the Canadian Embassy. The SIPRI Arctic Futures project aims to explore issues of security and geopolitics in a changing Arctic. Contact Kristofer Bergh for more information.
27 Mar.
  SIPRI expert presents on nuclear forensics
SIPRI Researcher Vitaly Fedchenko of the Nuclear Weapons Project delivered a lecture entitled ‘Nuclear forensics analysis as a response tool to nuclear terrorism events’ as part of a training course on weapons of mass destruction terrorism organized by the NATO Center of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism (COE–DAT). Find out more about COE-DAT and its activities or contact Vitaly Fedchenko for more information.
26 Mar.
Washington, DC
  Global Trends 2030: security challenges to the transatlantic partnership
SIPRI Director Bates Gill and SIPRI North America Executive Director Chantal de Jonge Oudraat spoke on panels at a conference envisaging the global trends for 2030 and the related security challenges of the transatlantic partnership. Dr Gill addressed China’s impact on the transatlantic partnership and the possibilities and challenges of greater trilateral cooperation. Dr de Jonge Oudraat addressed the demographic and economic challenges facing Europe, America’s pivot towards the Asia–Pacific and the overall implications for the NATO alliance. Contact Dr de Jonge Oudraat for more information.
23 Mar.
  SIPRI Researcher presents on the nature of armed conflict in the North Caucasus
SIPRI Senior Researcher Dr Neil Melvin, Director of the Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, gave a presentation entitled ‘The nature of armed conflict in the North Caucasus: ethnic and religious dimensions’ at a meeting hosted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Contact Dr Melvin for further information.
23 Mar.
  SIPRI expert briefs United States Africa Command personnel on air and maritime trafficking
Senior Researcher Hugh Griffiths briefed senior officials and officers of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM), including representatives from the command group, the intelligence and planning directorates, on air and sea trafficking dynamics. Griffiths also moderated a series of roundtable discussions bringing together state department officials, counter-narcotics and intelligence analysts and academics. Read more about his visit or contact Hugh Griffiths for further information.
8 and 13 Mar.
Paris and Brussels
  SIPRI expert discusses maritime trafficking dynamics
SIPRI Senior Researcher Hugh Griffiths presented the findings of the Maritime Transport and Destabilizing Commodity Flows report at two events. On 8 March, Griffiths, supported by SIPRI Communications Assistant Claire Fanchini, gave a presentation in Paris at a seminar on conventional weapons international trafficking organized by the Thomas More Institute and the French Ministry of Defence. In attendance at the seminar were members of UN groups of experts and officials from the French Ministries of Defence and Foreign Affairs as well as NGO representatives, academics and other stakeholders. On 13 March, Griffiths briefed the EU Working Party on Global Disarmament and Arms Control (CODUN) in Brussels on destabilizing transfers of SALW via sea on the occasion of the bi-annual CODUN Experts meeting on SALW. Read the Le Monde article on the Paris seminar or contact Hugh Griffiths for more information.

Hugh Griffiths at the event in Paris.

SIPRI in the media

This week’s launch of the new SIPRI data on global military expenditure has already generated more than 2100 articles. Contact SIPRI Communications Director Stephanie Blenckner for a detailed report.

SIPRI Researcher Dr Ian Anthony, Director of the SIPRI Programme on Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-proliferation, spoke to CCTV on the topic of the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Summit.

The SIPRI Background Paper Military Capabilities in the Arctic by Siemon Wezeman has been featured in a wide range of international news media outlets including the Washington Post, Canada’s Chronicle Herald and the Moscow News.

SIPRI Researcher Lina Grip from the Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme commented on why states have nuclear weapons on Swedish Radio.

SIPRI senior researcher Pieter Wezeman from the Arms Transfers Programme spoke to News.az about the arms deal signed by Azerbaijan and Israel in 2011. He was also quoted by Reuters in an article on Iran's defence capabilities.

SIPRI Senior Researcher Shannon N. Kile, Head of the Nuclear Weapons Project of the SIPRI Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme, spoke to the Swedish newspaper
Dagens Nyheter on the transport of plutonium. He also spoke to Reuters on the possible conflict with Iran.

SIPRI Senior Researcher Pieter D. Wezeman commented on Egypt's reliance on US military aid and weapons systems in an Inter Press Service (IPS) article.


SIPRI launches international search for new Director
After a successful five-year term, Dr Bates Gill is to step down as SIPRI Director and the institute has now launched an international search for his successor. Read more about the position.


Recent publications


SIPRI Fact Sheet
Trends in international arms transfers, 2011
Paul Holtom, Mark Bromley, Pieter D. Wezeman and Siemon T. Wezeman
The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database now contains information on all international transfers of major conventional weapons from 1950 to the end of 2011. It is the only publicly available resource providing consistent data on international arms transfers for this length of time. This Fact Sheet describes the trends in international arms transfers that are revealed by the new data. It lists the main suppliers and recipients for the period 2007–11 and describes the changes in regional trends. Download the Fact Sheet.


SIPRI Background Paper
Military capabilities in the Arctic
Siemon T. Wezeman
Climate change is making the Arctic region—and its expected natural resources—more accessible. Overlapping claims by the five Arctic littoral states—Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia and the United States—have led to fears of future conflict in the region. In recent years all five countries have included increased protection of Arctic territories and claims in their defence policies. All five have also started to increase their military presences and capabilities in the Arctic region by acquiring Arctic-specific equipment, improving military infrastructure or increasing military forces. Download the Background Paper.


SIPRI Policy Paper
Maritime Transport and Destabilizing Commodity Flows
Hugh Griffiths and Michael Jenks
Maritime transport flows are the lifeblood of global trade. They are also the dominant means of transporting a range of potentially destabilizing commodities that threaten states and societies throughout the developing and developed worlds. This SIPRI Policy Paper aims to fill an important knowledge gap by—for the first time in a public document—providing a comprehensive mapping and analysis of the ships involved in the clandestine transport of narcotics, arms and dual-use goods essential to the development of weapons of mass destruction. It also offers practical solutions to one of the most important global security challenges for policymakers, civil society and industry in the 21st century. Download the Policy Paper.


SIPRI Policy Paper
Transparency in Military Spending and Arms Acquisitions in Latin America and the Caribbean
Mark Bromley and Carina Solmirano
Military spending has risen considerably in Latin America and the Caribbean in recent years and several states in the region are engaged in major arms acquisition programmes. Despite generally positive interstate relations, fears have been expressed about the impact of these developments on regional stability and poverty-reduction efforts. Allaying such fears requires high levels of transparency in military spending and arms acquisitions in order to build confidence among states and permit informed public debates on the appropriate allocation of national resources. Download the Policy Paper.

report   SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security
Budgetary priorities in Latin America: military, health and education spending
Sam Perlo-Freeman
Military expenditure in Latin America has been increasing rapidly in recent years. In a region still plagued by poverty and inequality, with almost no threat of interstate conflict, some have questioned whether Latin American governments' budgetary priorities reflect their countries' real needs⎯and whether a trade-off is being made between military spending and social spending that could promote development and poverty reduction. Download the Insights Paper.
report   SIPRI Fact Sheet
Chronology of armaments, disarmament and international security 2011
Nenne Bodell
This chronology lists the significant events in 2011 related to armaments, disarmament and international security. In addition to the headline-grabbing events, it also records the less publicized, but no less important, advances and setbacks. Download the Fact Sheet.
map   SIPRI map of multilateral peace operation deployments, September 2011
This SIPRI map presents a snapshot of multilateral peace operation deployments worldwide using the latest data available. The map shows where missions are taking place, when they started, how large they are and which organizations and coalitions are conducting them. Comprehensive data on multilateral peace operations is available in the SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database, including fatalities, costs, mission mandates, national personnel contributions and lead nations. Download the map.

report   SIPRI Policy Paper
Arms Flows to Sub-Saharan Africa
Pieter D. Wezeman, Siemon T. Wezeman and Lucie Béraud-Sudreau
Concerns regarding arms transfers to sub-Saharan Africa are widespread and have motivated worldwide efforts to control arms flows. Although the volumes of arms transferred to the region are low by global standards, even supplies of relatively small quantities of older weapons can have a notable impact on conflicts. This detailed report provides a tour d'horizon of recent developments in arms transfers to both governments and rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa. Download the Policy Paper.
report   SIPRI new edition
Towards a Regional Security Regime for the Middle East: Issues and Options
Report of the SIPRI Middle East Expert Group with a new afterword by Peter Jones
Of all the world’s major regions only the Middle East lacks an inclusive system for dialogue and cooperation over security issues. Originally published in 1998, the report of the SIPRI Expert Group remains a landmark study by a distinguished group of regional experts on how such a system could be created in the Middle East. Download the report.
report   SIPRI Policy Paper
China's Energy and Security Relations with Russia: Hopes, Frustrations and Uncertainties

Linda Jakobson, Paul Holtom, Dean Knox and Jingchao Peng
The leaders of China and Russia like to speak in public of the strategic partnership between the two countries, based on mutual interests and trust. In reality, the two cornerstones of the relationship—arms sales and energy cooperation—are crumbling. China has not placed a significant order for Russian arms since 2005 and buys only a fraction of its energy imports from Russia. Download the Policy Paper.

SIPRI Yearbook 2011: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security
The 42nd edition of the SIPRI Yearbook includes coverage of developments during 2010 in major armed conflicts, multilateral peace operations, military expenditure, arms production, international arms transfers, world nuclear forces and fissile material stocks, nuclear arms control and non-proliferation, reduction of security threats from chemical and biological materials, conventional arms control, controls on security-related international transfers and multilateral arms embargoes. Read more or order a copy.

    Other publications

Griffiths, H.
, Bolton, M. and Sakamoto, E. E., ‘Globalization and the Kalashnikov: public-private networks in the trafficking and control of small arms’, Global Policy, London School of Economics (Feb 2012).

Garrido Rebolledo, V., ‘Intangible transfers of technology and visa screening in the European Union’, EU Non-proliferation Consortium, Non-Proliferation paper no.13 (Mar 2012).

Holtom, P. and Mićić, I., ‘European Union arms export control outreach activities in Eastern and South Eastern Europe’, EU Non-proliferation Consortium, Non-Proliferation paper no.14 (April 2012).

Jenks, M., ‘Traffic control’, Cargo Security International, vol. 10, no. 2 (Apr.–May 2012)

© SIPRI 2012. ISSN 1654-8264. Contact SIPRI by email: sipri@sipri.org; telephone: +46 8/655 97 00; fax: +46 8/655 97 33;
or post: SIPRI, Signalistgatan 9, SE-169 70 Solna, Sweden, or visit us online at www.sipri.org
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