Explanation of the TIV Tables
SIPRI statistical data on arms transfers relates to actual deliveries of major conventional weapons. To permit comparison between the data on such deliveries of different weapons and to identify general trends, SIPRI has developed a unique system to measure the volume of international transfers of major conventional weapons using a common unit, the trend-indicator value (TIV). To access SIPRI Trend Indicator Values (TIVs) please click on the 'Generate importer/exporter TIV tables' button in the right hand column.
The TIV is based on the known unit production costs of a core set of weapons and is intended to represent the transfer of military resources rather than the financial value of the transfer. Weapons for which a production cost is not known are compared with core weapons based on: size and performance characteristics (weight, speed, range and payload); type of electronics, load¬ing or unloading arrangements, engine, tracks or wheels, armament and materials; and the year in which the weapon was produced. A weapon that has been in service in another armed force is given a value 40 per cent of that of a new weapon. A used weapon that has been significantly refurbished or modified by the supplier before delivery is given a value of 66 per cent of that of a new weapon.
SIPRI calculates the volume of transfers to, from and between all parties using the TIV and the number of weapon systems or subsystems delivered in a given year. This data is intended to provide a common unit to allow the measurement if trends in the flow of arms to particular countries and regions over time. Therefore, the main priority is to ensure that the TIV system remains consistent over time, and that any changes introduced are backdated.
SIPRI TIV figures do not represent sales prices for arms transfers. They should therefore not be directly compared with gross domestic product (GDP), military expenditure, sales values or the financial value of export licences in an attempt to measure the economic burden of arms imports or the economic benefits of exports. They are best used as the raw data for calculating trends in international arms transfers over periods of time, global percentages for suppliers and recipients, and percentages for the volume of transfers to or from particular states.
Examples of SIPRI TIV
- The transfer of newly produced complete weapons systems: In 2009, Germany delivered 6 Eurofighter combat aircraft to Austria. One Eurofighter is valued at 55 million SIPRI TIV. Therefore the delivery is valued at 330 million SIPRI TIV.
- Transfer of surplus weapons: SIPRI values 'used' weapons at 40 percent of the TIV of a new weapon. In 2009, Germany delivered 43 surplus Leopard-2A4 tanks to Chile. One Leopard-2A4 tank is valued at 4 million SIPRI TIV and a used version is valued at 1.6 million SIPRI TIV (40 per cent of the value of a new version). Therefore, the delivery is valued at 68.8 million SIPRI TIV.
- Transfer of significant components for major conventional weapons systems: In 2009, Germany delivered 8 MTU-8000 diesel engines for frigates to Singapore. One MTU-8000 diesel engine is valued at 4 million SIPRI TIV. Therefore the delivery is valued at 32 million SIPRI TIV.
- Licensed production arrangement: The SIPRI definition of licensed production covers a range of activities whereby the recipient is granted permission to produce major conventional weapons from kits or blueprints. In 2009 the Republic of Korea was granted a license to produce one Type-209PN submarine. One Type-209PN submarine is valued at 275 million SIPRI TIV. Therefore the delivery is valued at 275 million SIPRI TIV.
Importer/Exporter TIV Tables
Importer/Exporter TIV Tables provide the total TIV of a country or rebel group's arms imports or exports for each year and for a selected period of years, broken down by supplier, recipient or weapon category. These tables can be generated for any of the countries or rebel groups included in the database and for any year or years covered by the database (1950 to the most recent full calendar year). In cases where deliveries are identified but it is not possible to identify either the supplier or the recipient with an acceptable degree of certainty, transfers are registered as coming from 'unknown' suppliers or going to 'unknown' recipients.
Top List TIV Tables
Top List TIV Tables provide the total TIV of arms imports or exports for a selection of the largest suppliers or recipients, along with the TIV of global arms imports or exports. These tables can be created for any selection of the largest suppliers or recipients included in the database and for any year or years covered by the database (1950 to the most recent full calendar year).
In cases where deliveries are identified but it is not possible to
identify either the supplier or the recipient with an acceptable degree
of certainty, transfers are registered as coming from 'unknown'
suppliers or going to 'unknown' recipients. In situations where there is
an arms transfer agreement for weapons that are produced by two or more
cooperating countries, and if it is not clear which country will make
the final delivery, the suppliers is listed as 'multiple'.